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The first company to introduce at which he worked to begin spethe American novelty of rigid suit- cializing in suitcases, is the reason cases to the Italian market, Valige- for its swift rise to success. By the ria Gazzarrini is a historic shop in s Gazzarrini was already recFlorence, one that has marked the ognized for the quality of its prodcommercial history of the city.

Open daily: 10 a. Florentine pharmacist Giovanni the period. Bigelow in New fragrances commissioned by York, Fred Segal in Hollywood, Tithe Medici family but also other gerlily Perfumery in San Francisscents popular among nobility of co, and online at beautyhabit. Hosted by Pitti Immagine, ModaPrima is highly anticipated event on the fashion buyer calendar that presents ready-to-wear fashion trends and accessories for men and women. ModaPrima aims to build relationships among the institutions that support both Italian fashion abroad and the players who work directly in the field of international distribution.

This edition presents Italian manufacturers as well as carefully selected international brands. Previous editions have seen more than 1, buyers, of whom were international, with participants from more than 50 countries. Strolling and Shopping Florence Online A new plat- greater number of virtual clients, form for in order to promote the range and s h o p p i n g quality of items hand-produced in Florence in Florence.

Items can be purchased online via streets. Until ModaPrima was held in Milan but relocated to Florence for its 71st edition in Its host venue is an example of the innovation promoted by the event: once a disused nineteenth-century railway station, Stazione Leopolda has now become a hub for contemporary events happening in the city. Open daily from 9 a. Montagliari, 29 Panzano in Chianti 85 20 14 info fattoriamontagliari. Products can be purchased from the online shop as well as in the farm store and restaurant.

The farm, located in the heart of Chianti, offers cooking classes and wine tastings. Closed on Sundays and public holidays; see Comune info points below for Sunday hours. July and August: Monday—Saturday: 7 a. Kennedy Every Tuesday: 8 a. Novella Train Station, outside the station.

Journey: 70 minutes. From Pisa to Florence: Piazza San Lorenzo and neighboring streets Daily: 9 a. Outdoor market: Monday—Saturday: 8 a. Cooking classes as well as individual lessons for both professionals and beginners are offered, with special deals for students. Tuscan specialties include ribollita and authentic Florentine steak, and all of the cakes and sweets are homemade.

Closed on Tuesdays. We cater for private and corporate events at both award-winning Riva Lofts on the Arno and from the comfort of your own home, providing vibrant multicultural flavors with innovation and care. Enjoy fireside, poolside or garden dining options at Riva Lofts and such favourite dishes as basil panna cotta with prosciutto, grilled figs and rocket salad; and crispy Chinese pork belly served with rice and a warm caramel-chili sauce. Contact Anna Bowcock: east rivalofts. The Firenze Card is your one-stop pass to the museums, churches and gardens of Florence.

See the website for full details: www. Dating back to , the well is seven centuries old and was originally built to supply water through a vast system of underground tunnels and pipes to the prisoners of the local prison, known as the Stinche now Teatro Verdi , that stretched as far as the Bargello.

The wine-tasting ends with the most exclusive reds of the cellar: Bolgheri, Super Tuscan, Morellino and Montepulciano. Upon request, guests also enjoy a buffet lunch comprising fresh. Pino boasts that 90 percent of the wines he holds are of Tuscan origin, and that his tours prove so popular that he often ships back boxes of the wine sampled to America in order to appease impressed customers.

Wine-tasting on Sundays by appointment minimum 10 people order pozzodivino. In true Florentine tradition, the outdoor food cart provides trippa, lampredotto, lesso, poppa, matrice, porchetta, salumi, and wild boar sausages made fresh daily. Just steps from the Duomo, it is one of the most frequented lunch spots in the historic city center. However, such was its popularity that once the Medici lost power, tripe returned in force and secured its place as a mainstay of Florentine street food. Initially, tripe was a staple food for laborers and the working classes, and it dates as far back as the fourteenth century.

Simple wooden street carts served sandwiches stuffed with tripe, and this tradition continues today, albeit in the more sophisticated kiosks that can be found dotted around the city. In order to fully understand this Florentine meal, an explanation of what tripe is and how it is cooked might be useful. Trippa, or tripe, is made from the. Enjoyed in many regions of Italy, it is cooked in a variety of ways. The name lampredotto comes, curiously, from the Italian word for lamprey eels, lampreda — once very abundant in the waters of the Arno River — as it resembles the inside of the mouth of a lamprey in shape and color.

Tuscan cooks rinse lampredotto well and boil it with tomatoes, onions, parsley and celery for two to three hours. The meat is then served in a Tuscan saltless bread roll panino with salt, pepper, chilli oil or salsa verde green sauce , with the top slice of the roll dunked in the lampredotto stock.

This specialty attracts a wide variety of clients, with roughly 30 percent of customers being tourists, along with a large local fan base and visitors who come from as far away as Milan specifically for the famous sandwiches. Indeed, approximately , kilograms of trippa and 80, kilograms of lampredotto are consumed in Florence each year, which indicates that this historical curiosity is far from losing its popularity. The meat is tender, if a slightly disconcerting texture, and it is well-seasoned and dripping in delicious, herby gravy and topped off with salsa verde.

It was only during the Renaissance that this pattern of an idealized woman to adore was broken and that women began to be represented as human, females now bereaved of their abstract and religious meaning. Most of the merit for this revolution must be attributed to Brunelleschi, who invented perspective in the fifteenth century, making it possible to represent the third dimension of space and the different proportions of the human body, which in turn made a psychological representation of humans possible.

The Florentine Madonnas are significant in this regard, full of a grace and delicacy that hide a kind of beauty but at the same time are melancholic and unattainable. Still, the perfection that transpires from these portraits, a per-. Skin-care treatments during the Renaissance were very similar to those of the Middle Ages, as were were bathing rituals, skin-care products, and cosmetics.

What changed, however, was the attitude with regard to these practices. While medieval women saw cosmetics simply as a way to appear more attractive, those of the Renaissance wanted to reach a transcendent ideal that combined classical philosophy and art with physical beauty and human values. This new, idealized model of beauty became a composite of perfect and symmetrical features inspired by classical statues and humanist philosophy. But, since most Florentine females were brunette, methods to color hair needed to be invented, leading to the birth of the modern cosmetic industry.

The most common method was a mix of alum, sulfur, soda and rhubarb. Another common practice at this time was drying and decorating hair with stones, pearls, ribbons, and shimmering veils. Some women even spent entire days under the sun to lighten their hair with capless hats, as pale ivory. Even though an overall pallor was desired, the Renaissance woman used just a touch of color on their cheekbones.

Another typical habit of females of this period was cutting the hair of the eyebrows, forehead, and temples, considered to be a way of displaying intelligence. Among the beauty secrets was that of the bella donna. Wealthy women — who were the ones establishing the trends — typically wore finer fabrics such as silks, brocades, and velvets, with elaborate details and expensive jewels.

The typical dress was in one piece from shoulder to hem and touched the ground with a close-fitting waist and full gathered skirt. The long dress often had an overdress with open sleeves. The belt around it was embroidered and trimmed with gold, silver buttons, pearls, and precious stones. These trends became the model for women from many countries. When Italy was conquered by foreign nations such as Spain, France and Austria, the world of fashion in Europe changed dramatically, and the idealized woman of the Middle Ages was thus forever abandoned. Chiara Becchetti is a professional tour guide with a background in fashion.

To book a tour with Chiara, write to her at: chiarabecchetti hotmail. The venue prides itself on its innovative and creative idea of preparing solely traditional dishes based on medieval recipes. Some are adapted and revisited for the modern age but in a way that one maintains the omnipresent feeling of Florentine history and tradition — so much so that Dante himself could walk in and dine next to you.

Traditional medieval-style dishes include home-made ribbon pas-. Also serving as a wine bar and pizzeria, the restaurant offers an eclectic selection of wines from its cellar, an outdoor summer terrace, and is fittingly decorated in a medieval style with armour and banners — and, of course, a mandatory bust of Dante himself. The contest is open to both European and non-European citizens, ages 15 and above.

Whether the images are of rivers, buildings, monuments or gardens, participants are encouraged to send in their best pictures. The contest closes on Aug. Only the lingering scent of leather and the sight of Paolo busily working at an island bench indicates that this is, in fact, a bottega producing finely crafted leather bags, backpacs, belts and various articles from the hands of the man himself. Rolls of jewel-colored leather line the walls, numbered and certified by Tuscan company Consorzio Vera Pelle Italiana Conciata al Vegetale, which practises an artisan method of vegetable-dyed leather that has its origins in the Renaissance.

Murano glass and Carnevale mask enthusiasts need not travel to Venice for quality souvenir items. Alvise Giustinian is a gift and art store specializing in Murano-made items and that guarantees the sale of purely Murano products, with no importation. Products include masks, jewelry, and glass objects for the home.

The garden of the historic Palazzo Corsini hosts the 21st edition of Artigianato e Palazzo, a festival dedicated to Italian craftsmanship, from May 14 to The garden is located in the Florence city center on Via della Scala and offers a serene and beautiful setting for the event among its lemon trees. Artisan demonstrations allow the public to feel as though they are in actual workshops and, in some cases, audience members can even participate as assistants.

Ceramics, bookbinding, mosaics, printing, inlay, jewelry, footwear,. Producers of fine foods are also on display. The edition was a great success, with more than 11, visitors in attendance. By inviting the public into the world of Italian and local artisans, Artigianato e Palazzo offers the chance to share crafts often at risk of dying out while helping to preserve the authenticity of Italian production. Corsini Gardens May 14—17 10 a. Other performances include a modern dance pieces by Aterballeto May 12, 9 p. Company May 12, 9 p. Most perfor- and innovation in a city that has historically been weighted by the mances will take place at Stazione Leopolda but others will be held at preservation of the past.

It has made significant contributions your student ID over to the box ofto the perception of Florence as fice at Via delle Carceri 1. A short ride away on bus no. Franto wander the grounds for free. While sy land where nature, science and seemingly unspectacular at first art merged using grottos, water sight, the true beauty of nature tricks and ancient statues.

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With wandering paths largest of the estates of the Mediand ancient oaks and cedars, the ci family, as shown in a detailed. Yet, after the death of Francesco and Bianca, the property was abandoned by the Medici. Falling into a period of decline under the House of Lorraine, the villa continued to decay, statues were transferred to the more prestigious Boboli Gardens and the park turned into a romantic garden. Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Lorraine brought new life to Pratolino in , when he commissioned Joseph Frietsch to transform the Medici gardens into a English-style garden typical of the Biedermeier period, adding 60 hectares of land to the garden.

The wealthy Russian Demidoff family, after whom the estate is. Water is still a central element of the estate and indeed a symbol of the entire park. The most noteworthy original work in the park is the Colossus of the Apennines, a huge statue sculpted by Giambologna in — Grotto, designed by Buontalenti in During summer, Pratolino hosts many events such as classical concerts performed by the Demidoff Ensemble and special Renaissance Nights, including sixteenth-century music, dance, dinner and a historical procession. Visit this historic treasure any Saturday this summer to see for yourself.

Pancrazio 10 a. Closed on Mondays. Thursdays: 9 a. Closed on Sundays, April 6th, May 1st, June 24th. Thursday 10 a. Tuesday to Friday a. Closed on Holidays. Leonardo 1 Forte Belvedere: 10 a. Closed on Monday Boboli Garden: a. Piazza Strozzi, Firenze Office: www. Saturday, May 2: , p. Sunday, May 3: , p. Thursday, May , p. Saturday, May , p. Sunday, May , p. Three Italian films have been nominated for the main competition at the Cannes Film Festival, which will be held from May 13 to Buy plays the role of a director shooting a film with an American actor protagonist while her mother is dying in the hospital.

She has just divorced her husband, Victor, and is trying to raise her teenage daughter Livia. Produced in English, the film stars Harvey Keitel and Michael Caine, who plays an ageing writer and a composer reflecting on life and art while on vacation in the Alps. The film is based on a collection of stories from the seventeenth century and stars Salma Hayek, Vincent Cassel and Alba Rohrwacher.

Composer and conductor Ennio Morricone, one of the most important Italian musicians on the international scene, performs in Florence on May The announcement was made last month by Morricone himself, who was forced to cancel several shows last year due to health problems. The recipient of numerous awards, Morricone has composed more than music scores for television and film over the course of his year career. Morricone attended the National Academy of Santa Cecilia from the age of nine, where he took trumpet lessons, and began his professional career after graduating in The program includes works, symphonic concerts, recitals and ballets from Italian and international artists.

Conducted by Zubin Mehta, recipient of nu-. Tuesday, May p. Wednesday, May p. It is interesting to note that, steering away from the traditional approach, the pro-. To book tickets, contact: is responsible for choreography, Ciabatti; Aeneas by baritone Fabio. Wine-tasting and classical music: the Musica Da Vino formula experimented last year by Fattoria il Piano returns on May 31 with a concert entitled Two Germans in Tuscany based on the music of Peter Mueller — and Franz Danzi — The wine-tasting starts at 5 p.

Perched at the top of a hill facing the medieval town of San Gimignano, the Fattoria il Piano offers guests a comfortable stay with apartments and a panoramic swimming pool featuring sunbeds, umbrellas and a changing room. Surrounding fields, woods. A barbecue, utility room and washing machine are also available for use.

Fattoria il Piano offers wine-tasting tours with a stroll through the vineyards, family chapels and even the underground cellar. Accompanied by a selection of local foods, the tasting of local wines takes place on the veranda with a magnificent view of the San Gimignano towers. Classical music concert from p. Fattoria Il Piano Loc. Be given a personal tour of the cellars and vineyards.

Then taste our wines with typical local dishes. Read some of our reviews on TripAdvisor. Reservations necessary. The Galleria Gagliardi was established in , in a square-meter space once used as a garage and farm machinery store. Today, the Galleria bears absolutely no resemblance to the original building apart from a section of the floor made up of oak boards, covering a hole which once enabled repairs to the underside of cars and machinery in the absence of a ramp.

This work of art was created by the previous. Since , the exhibition area of the gallery has been extended and the gallery has now become a cultural reference for the promotion and sale of contemporary art. Every work is chosen directly from the studios of artists who constantly experiment new solutions through their research, renewing their approach and skills. The Galleria exhibits ceramic,. Some of these tools are extremely rare, dating to the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Rocca di Montestaffoli Climb the remains of an ancient fortress turret for stunning views of the area. Located in V. San Giovanni, Cindarella offers shoes, jackets, socks, belts, bags, scarves, clothing and accessories all rigorously Made in Italy and selected for clients who wish to experience a unique shopping experience, just like in a fairytale Daily: a. Matteo on Via Cellolese Mon 4 p. The three shops are located in Via San Giovanni.

Products include bags for women, business bags for men, belts, wallets, as well as other goods and can be purchased both online and in store. Ancient City Walls Walk along the 13th century walls with 15th century Medicean bastions Free outdoors. However his success truly began when he moved May 1 marks a historic date in the from Lotus-Renault to McLarrealm of Formula One racing. Ayr- en-Honda. The team became a strong force in Marino Grand Prix. Although there have been other the world of racing as they won all crashes and fatalities in the racing, but 15 Grand Prix in In Senna finished runner-up and sport.

In Williams. Senna did not finish the first two races of the season. Entering mula One the following season. Senna suffered from fatal skull fractures, brain injuries and a ruptured temporal artery, and was declared dead hours later. Today Senna is still voted as one of the best drivers ever, renowned for his wet-weather driving abilities and holding the record for most victories ever at the Monaco Grand Prix, which number six.

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Inaugural Edition on May 23 Jhovanna Lopez A fun way to get active without requiring any preparation, the Color Run takes off in Florence at Cascine Park on May 23, the second of eight cities taking part in the event. Participants pass through one of four color zones every kilometer, where they are pelted with percent natural colored powder. The edition also sees the advent of a glitter zone towards the end of the race. The run begins with a crowd warm-up and start-line party with music to get participants in the mood, followed by the four color zones and glitter zone, concluding with an after-party.

The event also. The pub also offers various promotions and contests with many exciting prizes. The genuine atmosphere together with the helpful and inviting staff make Dublin Pub an ideal place to spend fun nights in good company or enjoy a beer any time while listening to great background music. Open daily from 5 p. Children who enter with adults can pay reduced ticket prices, and teams are allowed as long as they include four participants. The run is open to anyone.

For more information visit: www. Fiorentina vs Cesena May 3 at 3 p. Fiorentina vs Parma May 18 at 7 p. Fiorentina vs Chievo May 31 at p. Jogging in a crowded city with hardly any sufficient sidewalk space can be frustrating, and not to mention dangerous. To avoid pollution, the best place to run is along the Arno, but to avoid pedestrian and vehicular traffic, run along the bank of the river and not on the street.

The riverbank is easily accessed from Lungarno Cellini. Cascine Park is a great place to go running, with large, grassy open spaces along the Arno. It is located off of Via del Fosso Macinante, and is large enough to get in a full workout while exploring the entirety of the park. For those looking for a flat but long run, start south of the Ponte Vecchio and continue east past Ponte alle Grazie.

Turn right onto Via Galileo to bring you back down to the river and to your starting point. An alternative route starts at the Duomo, heading south along Via dei Calzaiuoli and crossing the Ponte Vecchio, until the roundabout at Porta Romana. Turn left onto Via Machiavelli and follow the winding road which turns into Via Galileo. Veer left upon reaching Piazzale Michelangelo and around the back of the square, following the bends onto Via San Miniato. Head for the river to get back to your starting point. Tickets can be bought through When in Florence, online at it.

Keep up to date with Fiorentina at en. In the more depressed areas, subject to to be due to the Serchio, whereas the waters of the development of marshes, deposits of organic the Arno produced finer clasts since provided clay and peat9 may be seen. These deposits may with less energy.

Subsurface fluvial-marshy silt be seen in areas that were permanently marshy may be found above, corresponding to a more in the past, but only occasionally so today in limited phase of fluvial activity, confirmed by correspondence of serious weather conditions. This reduction in transport Stagno, in the area of Ballerina and of Gracitone is probably associated with the presence of an and near Campaldo. The prevailingly silty and arid climate which, during the upper Pleistocene sandy alluvial deposits have an averagely coarser favoured the deposition of the sand dunes of grain size than those of the sediments described Isola di Coltano above the subsurface fluvial- above.

The repeated overbanks which involved marshy silt. The presence of these sands indicates the plain of Pisa in the past deposited the coarser sea water ingress followed by a eustatic rise with silty fraction mainly in the areas located near the the formation of wind dunes. These sands are course of the Arno. In fact, silt can be found in followed by the deposition of fluvial-marshy silt the area of Barbaricina, Vettola, San Giovanni 7 At a depth of around m in the area of Pisa and with thickness varying between 4 and 10 m.

The filling soils, with thickness varying areas, which may have been deposited by an between 1. The the banks of the Arno Sands are present along areas in which the substratum is composed of the coastal strip in correspondence of the beaches these sediments are slightly more elevated than and coastal dunes, in the areas of Coltano, the former marshy areas in which averagely finer Castagnolo and in a very limited area near sediments can be found.

The prevailingly sandy Montacchiello. The sands are mainly composed alluvial deposits are mainly composed of lower of quartz, at times intercalated with silty sands, amounts of clayey and silty sands and can be seen of a light-brown hazelnut colour in the more in the first 5 metres of subsurface. These deposits upper layers and grey in the lower layers. The are located in the area of Ospedaletto and in a fine silty sands that may be found along the number of sections adjacent to the current course coast, in inter-ridges deposits, and in certain of the Arno.

They may be interpreted as sandy sections along the course of the Arno and in the settlings which were formed in the inner part area of Ospedaletto, at times feature silty and of meanders due to the slowing down of the clayey intercalations. Yellowish brown clay and current. The calcarenites and sands of Isola di silt emerge at Campaldo, Lenze, Cisanello, San Coltano are sandy sediments of prevailingly Giusto in Cannicci, Campacci, Montacchiello and quartz composition which rise in Coltano, in the to the east of Ospedaletto. The plastic bluish grey area of Castagnolo and in a limited area near clay may be found in the former marshy areas Montacchiello.

The areas in which these soils are to the north of Coltano, in Stagno, in the area of located have a higher morphology since they are Ballerina, Gracitone and close to Campaldo. This wind-driven coastal dunes residues and reach clay, which is highly plastic and naturally humid, maximum differences in elevation of metres. The ochre-hazelnut generally characterised by sandy soils that show soils show clay and at times sandy intercalations, a lensing pattern separated by fine silty-clayey mainly deposited during overbanking processes sediments, which may be associated with the also in recent times.

They were deposited following the discharge and accumulation of excavated material during the construction of the banks and flood bed, whilst the fill material inside the flood bed of Cella is composed of an accumulation of inert materials formed of lithoid elements and bricks, as well as more or less fine material.

These small transient marshes developed a sharp deceleration in sea-level rise and by the in morphologically low-lying zones close to one increase in sediment supplied by the two fluvial or more coeval or semi-coeval palaeochannels. Lagoon siltation occurred around the middle of the III 2. During the the north and to the Livorno hills to the south. Eneolithic Age B. The littoral drift at the mouth context, geochemical data reveal that the plain of the Arno River is divergent, flowing south was also fed by the Serchio in correspondence on the left of the delta and north on the right, of the modern Morto River course.

This while it is convergent at Calambrone. The drift complex hydrogeological network marked by convergence could be correlated to the presence two river basins — Arno and Auser -Serchio — of dominating waves from south-southwest also characterises the phase of alluvial plain associated with strong south-westerly winds. The presence of at least a southern current generates the drift oriented three generations of channels and related levee towards north, which could be responsible for the and crevasse splay deposits document a highly sandy accumulation at Calambrone. Geochemical data also provide morphodynamic configuration does not seem evidence of a river branch fed by the Serchio in to differ greatly from the current configuration the Morto River area and another branch Auser?

The formation of the alluvial texture and compositional differences between plain dates back to the Etruscan-Roman Age more ancient before the II-I century B. The landscape: the anthropised environment therefore, is similar to that found today except the western border of the Cotone16 delle Cascine, to for the presence of the Sinus Pisanus11, the large the north of the Arno, and through the western inlet on the southern part of the coast, which later border of the Cotone San Guido - La Bigattiera, to changed into a wetland. No study has localised planting and deforestation.

The configuration of the early-medieval coast. The most eastern runs the Tyrrhenian deltas, including the Arno delta, is roughly through the eastern border of the Cotone in fact characterised by a low platform — scarcely delle Vacche PRANZINI and dates back to the influenced by subsidence and by low tidal range XII century, followed by the coastline identified — and is sensitive to environmental changes, less along the western border of the same Cotone, to the to anthropic action13 BELLOTTI The sea level north of the Arno, and through the western border was lower than the current one: at the start of the of the Cotone del Mancino, to the south of the Arno, I century A.

A A large number of studies have consistently 14 further west shore, running through the eastern dealt with the positioning of the coastline15 border of the Cotone Ferdinando, to the north of the and its changes throughout history. The alii A number of mistakes were found in the latter Table 2. PRANZINI in his study carried out with the creation of DEM from LIDAR pointed out how numerous convergent dune ridges are formed during rapid progradation, none of which reveal significant vertical growth; instead, when there is less supply, higher and parallel dunes are formed, since each ridge is more exposed to the action of the wind.

Between the II difficulties The chronological coincidence century B. C to XVI century A. BROWN Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling natural afforestation, increased the level of coastal drop coincides with the line calculated. Overall progradation These data allow us to understand reading, therefore, confirms rapid advancement the general situation during the Early Middle of the coastline between the Late Roman period Ages, but not to calculate the possible location and the first centuries of the Early Middle Ages of the early-medieval coast.

For this reason, we increasingly lower coastal dunes with a standstill analysed the percentage growth curve of the delta around the start of IX century, in agreement with plain of the Arno BELLOTTI over the long- climatic, environmental and demographic data. Based upon this, we the eastern border of the Cotone delle Vacche at examined the location of the coastlines, observing around 3 km from the current coastline PRANZINI almost total coincidence with the location of , rather than the western border of the the II-I century B.

The location of a coast level of average progradation acquired in the three generically dating back to before or to the different points was multiplied by If we compare rejected. Over the following centuries, climatic this result with the altimetric variations of the variations and especially the cutting of the Vettola coastal dunes PRANZINI , the elevation and San Rossore meanders increased of the ridges constantly drops in the stretch the level of progradation28, in this case also well between 4.

This dunes. In this case, the XVI century line indicated 26 This goes against PRANZINI and , who associates delta progradation during historical ages mainly with anthropic causes and connects early-medieval depopulation not only to the reduced growth of the Arno delta, but also to possible erosion of the Roman Age cusp.

Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling Tab. Eastern border of the Cotone delle CAR. Briefly, despite the undeniable quality year totalling m. Maximum progradation that of the work carried out, each study has gaps due to can be measured between the coastlines indicated the sector-specific nature of the work: studies by them for the XIV and XVI centuries is around based on historical mapping have attempted to m equal to 3. In the majority of cases, these are valid assumptions that 2. The greatest and with which it has been possible, also through concentration of traces may be seen near the C 14 dating, to date various palaeochannels.

They were compared fact that they are more recent and, therefore, more with the subsurface database, checked in many superficial and also due to the presence of large cases using geoelectric investigation with overbanking deposits, i. Sporadic concentrations of traces Regarding the area between Lake Massaciuccoli may be found in the areas immediately behind the and the Arno River, in addition to the above studies more internal beach ridges both north and south checked with the data currently available in the of the Arno River and in the area around Coltano, subsurface database , we are also provided with an probably due to the nature of the land presence of updated analysis of the aerial photographs and marshy areas or its use by man.

Of interest is the remote sensing data aimed at identifying traces fact that the area between Lake Massaciuccoli and attributable to palaeochannels preparatory to the the current course of the Serchio River, characterised MAPPA Project BINI et alii a: ss , in relation by marshy deposits which make it difficult to read to which aerial photographs taken between the fluvial palaeotraces, reveal the presence of and were analysed, including the infrared narrow and elongated traces with north-south photographs related to the night flight of and direction, some of which are highly reliable.

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They satellite data BINI et alii This is a preliminary can be related to natural genesis on which man study from which assumptions may be made and subsequently intervened by building artificial checked using a detailed multi-disciplinary canals, at times navigable. The area between the analysis. Every single item detected was digitised, cannot be definitely attributed to either of the two following the palaeo-banks that identified their fluvial basins. The idea that the Arno River may geometry, and was then hierarchised in order to have interested sectors located more to the north of separate the most reliable traces from the most its current course cannot be excluded, as suggested insubstantial ones.

The area south of incidence. This datum shows the significant the Arno River can be divided into two sectors: an contribution of the fluvial network to the eastern sector with a good number of traces, typical geomorphological evolution of the area. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling Fig.

The landscape: the anthropised environment internal beach ridges, where the traces become that toponymic tracking is able to provide an illegible as they approach Coltano. Overall, the overall view of the courses. As data base, I took study developed by BINI et alii a identifies two the existing studies that have addressed medieval series of traces belonging respectively to the fluvial palaeo-hydrographic issues including written basins of the Arno and the Auser-Serchio rivers, sources34, toponymy35, the traces of and a third series of uncertain attribution The palaeochannels36 and historical mapping and I study shows how, geomorphologically, applied a basic, simple spatial analysis method37 typological evolutions of the watercourses that founded upon the identification of toponyms constantly maintain a meandering pattern cannot mentioned in medieval written sources still legible be noted and underlines, once again, the extreme in existing toponymy and upon their spatial variability of the courses and the difficulty to relation Select by Location with mapped palaeo- define detailed chronologies.

During my previous traces. Regional data resulting from written sources with the data Technical Map. Georeferencing was carried out available until then on the palaeochannels, as a point shapefile with screen vectorisation reaching various assumptions on possible fluvial The point was positioned at the centre of palaeo-traces. The data review carried out for the the toponymic name for toponyms indicating an MAPPA project provided quite a different picture area, in the middle of the settlement for populated fig.

What to do? I decided to re-propose the areas, and in the middle of the building for all previous method, well aware that only a multi- toponyms referring to a specific structure such as disciplinary approach, combining subsurface data a house, villa, farm, etc. Finally, the FlowAccumulation command was used to process the flow accumulation map which highlights the preferential courses of water flows and not the actual wa- ter network, which depends not only on elevation values, DEM, but also on the type of soil and land management.

Based upon the flow. The file obtained, once re-classified, was not very reliable due to the predominance of low-lying areas; for this reason, I preferred using more simple investigation methods which were more reliable. The vertices of the polygons are built around intermedi- ate points of the distances between two nearby points; each point interpolated inside a specific polygon assumes the value of the known value point nearest to it. These tessellations are used in archaeology to define areas influ- encing the sites and are successful when working with points of equivalent importance.

Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling first attestation of the toponym in relation to the river in the written sources. A m distance was chosen due to the accuracy level of the toponymic areas obtained from the Thiessen polygons and from the georeferencing and vectorisation of the palaeo-traces using images with low-detail cartographic scale.

The result obtained and desired shows a complex fluvial system not the reconstruction of a definite course, in view of the previously mentioned variableness of the rivers and the difficulty to indicate a definite chronology. The toponyms found in medieval 2. In the case of medieval toponyms, the situation is more uncertain due to the difficult location and probably disappearance of certain toponyms. Written sources show alii Vecchia, Albavola clearly referring to Alzavola then formed a bend to the north of Nodica and La Sterpaia.

It is mentioned in a large range with which it partially merged later on, but it may of medieval written sources, starting from the have followed — at least during a certain period — a IX century when the river was mentioned more northern course the most ancient, as attested as located in Lintablo, prope ponte de Lignaria to by a document of ? Written sources speak of embankments in , Figuaita in , Riglione from , and only from the end of the XIII century, when the Marmo and Isola in The areas of the toponyms with the date of their first attestation are indicated in purple.

Some corrections remains of a branch that turned into a trench and were made on the selection obtained, excluding suggests that the river bed gradually moved north the most northern stretch in the Carraia Vecchia until merging with the Tubra. Lastly, the interlacing meanders some very southern , such stretches previously attributed to the Tubra River as those of Fabbriano.

From Arena onwards, its were cancelled. Of particular Pratevecchie, Starrigiana, maybe coinciding with interest is the initial stretch of the Serchio River, that of the Tubra River, and after bending at Isola, divided into a southern course at Fossa Riparia, it moves upstream to the north where it flows into which parts from the Auser to the east of Caldaccoli the sea. The analysis confirms its position to the and then moves up towards Pappiana, and a right of the toponyms Metato, Cafaggio Regio northern course that passes through Avane, and and Albavola.

It also confirms how the Serchio retraces the initial course of the Tubra River. The landscape: the anthropised environment m, which would attest the presence of lands longer existing and then into the Arno River at delimited by two rivers. The Valdozzeri Auser Valley. The northern course, which formed a whirlpool, from REDI , in partially coincides with the course of the Tubra, is Orzignano in , near Bagno del Monte Pisano55 instead posterior to the mid-XII century, when in , in Gello and in Campolungo at the start of the written sources report the merging of the two the XIV century, at the Manno hospital in , in rivers.

The second the Serchio River, where it flowed into the sea was positioned more to the north than the first and REDI Reference to the atrophy of the partially coincided with the course of the Tubra. GIS spatial analysis of the 61 Thee interventions that led to the disappearance of the Auser were carried out during Modern Ages: the navigable canal of Ripafratta was built between and , which used only part of the ancient course, making the old river useless.

The initial stretch blue appears to have remained substantially the same throughout the Middle Ages. The areas of the toponyms with the date of the first attestation of passage of the Auser River are in turquoise. Corrections were made on Pisa. The course imagined for the early- similar to that of the Fiume Morto fig.

After Puntata, it bent at Pratale, east of the 2. The areas of the toponyms with the date of the first attestation of passage of the Auser River are in brown. Montioni68, Musigliano in , the churches of The archaeological data73, all located in the area San Vittore di Campo in and San Giovanni of Barbaricina, have highlighted the presence of di Mezzana in , Colignola in , Ripoli sandy-silty deposits of fluvial origins referable in , Ghezzano in , Cisanello in , 70 to a river bed.

This toponym Lentia, Lentha, Lenthe is linked to the presence of long and narrow shaped fields, typical of reclamation areas Garzella Selection bent through Musigliano and formed another by Location of the palaeochannels identified the meander near Colignola. A series palaeochannels 74 Previously Montioni.

Lastly, it formed a meander based on the interpretation of written sources and towards north at San Rossore, gradually moving toponymy. Even the sector immediately to the east its mouth increasingly towards south west. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling the two courses identified, between the Roman the Serchio, at Il Marmo, where in a marshy Age and the XII century, when the Arno was still area is mentioned during winter, but dry during mentioned at Titignano fig.

A large swamp is described from this large submerged areas which had both a negative area, running southwest, down to Pisa and the and positive impact on the city. Getting an idea Arno, called pisana in the diploma of Emperor of the size of these areas allows us to assess their Corrado III, but already existing with the name of impact on the development of Pisa. As in the case Authioli, in , or Osule, in, or palus Auseris of the analysis of the rivers, I studied the presence Auser marsh , in the XII century, and mentioned of marshy areas in medieval written sources.

The following are mentioned between alii On the left bank of the Serchio, near XIII century, in Macadio82 in , in Cafaggio Arena, written documents indicate the existence of in , and between Valdozzeri and the right a marshy area attested in and in It is difficult to locate it. The Leopoldino land register maps report the toponym Church of San Bartolomeo at Cascine Nuove, around 1 km northeast.

This marsh reached the church of San Rossore which rose at Cascine Nuove. The position was identified at Cascine Nuove, where many skeleton remains and a well were found in March , ascribable to the presence of a cemetery and the cloister of a monastery REDI South of the Arno, written documents internal drainage areas. Geopedological data use report the presence of a large marshy area, called land maps86 and geological maps CAR. Marshes are analysis of reclassified and processed data using mentioned close to the city at Chinzica in the raster calculator function, allowed to create and Orticaria from , but it was mainly the a map of the potential areas subject to flooding lower lands south of the city, spreading to the foot during the medieval period.

A fundamental part of the first hills, and Livorno to be occupied by of this work phase consisted in reclassifying the vast marshy areas of Mortaiolo and Coltano Reclassify tool , i. First, a to evaluate their validity, the steps taken will model of the areas that could have been potentially be reported in detail. A DEM of the area examined model was checked in a sample area 85 through was created, generically referable to the Middle checks with palaeogeographical maps, historical Ages, in respect of which I decided to use the XVI DEM and archaeological data, until reaching a century coastline as a coastline that could take historical-archaeological interpretation of the data into account the advancement of the coast during obtained.

The model of the areas potentially subject the entire medieval period, and to exclude all the to floods was created using GIS analysis which elevation points positioned to the west of this line. First of all, geographic for such a large area, given the lack of sufficient data: terrain elevation, based on the premise that elevation data referable to the Middle Ages, I 83 The Monastery of Ognissanti is documented from close to the extra-urban church of San Giovanni al Gatano, on the left bank of the Arno to the south-west of Pisa; in it was transferred to the other bank of the Arno inside the walls at the church of Santi Vito e Ranieri, where it remained until ; then it was transferred to the no longer existing church of San Lorenzo alla Rivolta up to the suppression of ecclesiastic institutions in Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling decided to process the data on existing elevation to flood.

The last geographic data were related points. The latter 88 sink function so as to highlight the submerged was reclassified on the basis of elevation values areas sink. The i. The DEM was also subject geological data. The former were inferred from to the slope function, which identifies slopes the land map The selection file was was in turn reclassified slopmdproball. Although provided with sample data in the neighbouring area of Pisa which was investigated by the MAPPA Project, we decided not to use them for the creation of a DEM for such an extensive area, given their low representativeness in an area of km2.

The choice of the scale one of the crucial phases of any scientific process was based on the fact that a scale that is too thick does not necessarily ensure accuracy MACCHI They are generally cultivated for sowing, when permitted by the salinity. They are generally cultivated for sowing, when permitted by the acidity and salinity.

Our analysis took into consideration the Grecciano soils and the secondary soils of Arena. The geological The map obtained regarding areas potentially data were obtained from the CAR. By overlapping the urbanised then reclassified rictopopalu3. Spatial analysis was carried out may appear to be slightly underestimated during the final phase of the work map algebra : 95 given the absence of records.

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The minor to those with low potential, with areas of influence of the toponymic data is due to their medium potential within this area and at the minor accuracy. Even in this case, the data may Arno River to the east of Pisa. To the south appear to be distorted due to the presence of of Pisa, medium probability involves the large urbanised areas. Elevation is expressed at current sea level. The next step was to make chronological in the palaeogeographical map referring to the assumptions related to these scales of values: Early Middle Ages almost perfectly coincides attribution to areas that are still sunken, or were with the maximum limit of the area with medium so until recently, was quite simple for the areas flooding potential both to the north and south- with high flooding potential; instead, for areas west, while a depression is excluded in the with medium flooding potential we assumed that eastern sector at Pratale 97 located on the basis of they could represent maximum expansion of the the MAPPA 4 and 5 cores.

Late-medieval palaeogeographical map value 5 areas. This model was compared in the identified a marshy area in the north-western MAPPA project sample area 96 with the sector, whose traces partly coincide with the palaeogeographical period maps related to the largest value-5 depressions of the model fig. The second check was carried out using the with historical DEM. The marshy area identified historical early- and late-medieval DEM figs. They were created with a double average yearly growth rate of 2 mm as found in reliability scale for urban and extra-urban areas.

I decided, investigations99, whereas the extra-urban area therefore, to analyse the average values of the DEM was developed in a regressive manner, given elevation points inside and outside the urban the small number of elevation points available. The algorithms were compared using reiterative cross-validation techniques, which consist of creating a new DEM and omitting certain points of the original dataset and subsequently testing the elevation of these points with their original one.

The urban area DEMs were created with 20 m cells. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling inside and outside the walls, taken from the areas during arid months and marshes during LiDAR, thus emphasising the growth rate of the rainy months. Even the TopotoRaster interpolation deposits: in the area outside the walled centre, does not highlight the area identified by the the elevation points grew averagely, from the geomorphological analysis, at Pratale.

Regarding Early and Late Middle Ages to today by 1. The LiDAR, therefore, was rasterised coincidence between the TopotoRaster in m cells and these were transformed into interpolation and the map of areas potentially elevation points; the difference between the subject to flooding, with a substantial coincidence average of the current elevation points and the with the palaeogeographical maps in the north- average of the early- and late-medieval elevation western sector, but not in the south-western points was subtracted from every rasterised sector.

The last phase checked the actual presence LiDAR elevation points, then the cells containing of marshy areas in the areas identified through excavation data were checked, finding an average comparison with archaeological data The result is a DEM of the periurban area clayey layers ascribable to marshy areas and of Pisa with two different reliability scales: high dating often determined in a relative manner on for the urban area and low for the extra-urban the basis of the stratigraphic sequence, given that area.

In order to compare previously processed in the majority of cases these sediments cover data, elevation was classified into nine classes Roman agricultural areas and are covered by through Natural break , and using manual post-medieval layers. In the sector to the north- correction to highlight the areas under sea level. The interpolation using TopotoRaster of the area during the Early and Late Middle produces a spot effect and, probably, better Ages, given that the layer covered a well dating describes an environment made of wetlands, dry back to the I-II century A.

Similarly, the By viewing the Natural Breaks, the data are grouped in classes on the basis of similar values in order to maximise the differences between the classes themselves. The landscape: the anthropised environment archaeological excavation in via Consani the former Cristallerie Genovali and the former identified the presence of an alluvial event, Scheibler area, brought to light the presence of underneath the modern and contemporary marshy soils, both clayey and sandy-clayey, with agricultural phases, which cancelled an Imperial a grey, greenish grey or at times yellow, dark grey agricultural phase, thus dating from the Late or bluish grey colour often containing vegetal Roman period along through the Middle Ages.

These layers appear to Further south, in viale G. Pisano 29 , a brownish have formed due to slow accumulation in marshy gray plastic clayey layer was identified with a environments following cancellation of the early thickness measuring between 0. In the northwest sector of the city, may be evidence of a slight elevation, levelled under a contemporary fill soil, the excavation in following intense post-medieval agricultural use, via Bragazzi brought to light a rather consistent and of an agricultural soil dating back C14 to the layer around 1.

Regarding the sector flooding potential and in the area indicated as to the west of the city, traces of a marshy area marshy from the geomorphological analysis. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling and the excavation at the former Marzotto textile different analysis steps in an integrated manner, factory , probably related to the fluvial a historical reading will now be provided. Comparison of all the data a: These events led to the development shown appears to confirm the starting of marshes in large areas previously drained assumption: areas with medium flooding by widespread Roman works, as apparently potential immediately north of Pisa city centre suggested by the increase in hydro-hygrophilous were actually marshy during the Middle Ages; species Acquatics found between the IV and VI it is legitimate to suppose, therefore, save for century in the pollen analysis of the MAPPA 4 any further checks, that the areas identified as core ALLEVATO et alii The extension of these having high and medium flooding potential wetlands, whose surface changed over time, were indeed marshy during the Early Middle reached its peak during the Early Middle Ages Ages.

The procedure used to highlight the areas and then decreased during the middle centuries potentially subject to flooding is extremely of the Middle Ages, when part of these areas effective on a large scale, when the need for in- were reclaimed. It is yet to be confirmed whether depth details is not so strong. The wetlands a good idea of the seasonal development of that influenced the city more directly were the wetlands that characterised the plain. A digital Palude Pisana Pisan marsh , also known as the elevation model, therefore, is not sufficient on Paludozzeri Auser marsh , which also involved its own to understand the phenomenon and the urban area, and the neighbouring area cannot be applied on a large scale.

Some wetland areas are to be related the southern sector subject to naturally well- to the fluvial courses, such as the Caldaccoli channelled flows and associated with the Arno wetland, to the northeast, along the foot of the River BINI et alii The presence of wetlands Monti Pisani, connected to the course of the and stagnant water probably led to critical health Auser, the Arena wetland close to the Auserclus situations, although the archaeological sources and the Tubra rivers, and to the northwest, do not report data related to the presence of the Marmo wetland at the mouth of the Auser malaria; the demonstration of frequent cases of and the Auserclus rivers.

The area to the south of the city, instead, was characterised Extensive reclamation was mainly dictated by by the marshes of Stagno and Coltano, which the need to manage the landscape related with although further from the city centre, must have the occupation of urban development areas often reached the city borders as attested by XIV and agricultural or pasture lands, and the century documents The extremely variable maintenance of waterways.

If, on the one hand, size of these areas is connected, in addition rivers were embanked and meanders were cut, on to anthropic interventions, to seasonality, the other, the main reclamation works developed influenced by the little difference in height of a complex network of trenches and canals which, the lowlands which favoured the formation of starting from XI century, involved the main wetland areas related to greater rainfall, to the marshy areas neighbouring the city.

To the north rise of the water table and to fluvial flooding, of the Serchio, the Vecchiano and Malaventre area as already highlighted in the already mentioned was influenced by the canal of Navariccia, the document which describes a wetland at Il Magna Great trench, the trench of Montione and Marmo as a marshy area during winter, yet dry the Nuova New trench, whereas further west during summer. The second also coincides with the toponym Salceta present in XIX century land registers. For this reason it was not considered in the previous considerations.

Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling Massaciuccoli and the Bovario Ox trench The Double trench, the Angullaria trench, the de area of the Palude pisana Pisa marsh was drained flumine trench or de fluminis Auseris canal and the by the Cuccia trench , Caballaria Horsey Iuliana trench, whilst in the canals between trench and Salaria Salt trench, which flowed Monti Pisani and San Zeno were developed for towards east-west between the Arno and the transporting materials needed to build the city Serchio, dividing the Tumulus Pisanus into two, by walls The sector to the east of the city, between the Nuova trench which ran from the Auser River the Auser and Arno rivers, was reclaimed by towards Sterpaia, by the trench of Barbaricina, building the Vicinaia trench, which drained the by the Docaria trench, also called Cula , which marsh of Asciano flowing into the Auser River flowed to the northwest of the city, and by the and the trench of Maltraverso, which united the urban trenches such as the de Flumine of river extremities of the bend drawn by the Auser to trench.

Trenches and canals also crossed reach the walls of Pisa The courses of these trenches may be seen in the traces of the north-south oriented palaeo traces to the south of Lake Massaciuccoli Bini et alii a: The toponym Riparia trench can still be seen on maps today to the southwest of Caldaccoli and is crossed by Doppio trench, which also runs near the toponym San Jacopo and flows into Fiumicello trench.

The landscape: the anthropised environment since , the Torale trench reported since 2. Moving people, moving goods and therefore: the strata de Arbaula, the podium The landscape we have described — characterised by Vallis Serchii, the strata Vallis Auseris to the north a complex and shifting fluvial system and by a large of Pisa, the via silice Portus Pisani and the strata amount of depressed areas subject to becoming Vallis Arni to the south of the city.

Minor or marshy — conditioned the movement of people and secondary road networks were not analysed Viability and especially mobility on archive sources and toponymy, consisting are issues that Italian medieval archaeology is mainly of documents subsequent to the XII starting to address very late CITTER 79 and century An overall archaeological study is which it should deal with through national or instead missing on the medieval road network in Mediterranean projects, such as those developed the Pisa area. For this reason, I decided to verify for the Roman Ages.

In the case of Pisa, we shall the data using cost surface analysis This type of only address issues regarding mobility in the area analysis allows us to calculate the cost of energy between Livorno and Lake Massaciuccoli, leaving a needed for an individual to move between two wide-scale investigation to other occasions.

It is worth remembering that this is not an accurate system but a predictive model. For this reason, the path does not necessarily run in the point indicated by the GIS, but rather that the results obtained may lead to new elements allowing considerations on this issue. Costs increase as the distance increases. The evaluations I extremely variable courses and, as already seen, propose were carried out from the DEM of the to the difficulty in providing chronological medieval landscape with an accuracy of 10 metres, details, although we are aware of how much from which three variables were extracted which they affected travelling conditions Slope was may have influenced the creation of the road obtained by applying the Slope function Spatial network.

An in general, excessive elevation influences the cost influence equal to half of the slope was assigned to of a journey; furthermore, travelling at lower elevation: in this case the DEM was reclassified by altitudes guarantees better climatic conditions dividing it into 60 classes, assigning a higher value especially during certain periods of the year. Areas potentially subject to flooding: these areas The same value was assigned to areas potentially can pose challenging obstacles, also in economic subject to flooding obtained by reclassifying terms.

The landscape: the anthropised environment assigning a higher value to the areas with greater probability of flooding. Thus, the lower areas, therefore more subject to flooding, balance the value of the higher areas. The buffer zones fig. Finally, on the basis of using the shortest path and shown on current maps. It is not clear which period this route Path was calculated with the point of arrival. The possible early-medieval river courses are indicated in dark blue, the late-medieval courses in blue. The two shades of green refer to the probable size of the marshy areas during the Early lighter and Late darker Middle Ages.

The landscape: the anthropised environment a landing place or more generically a crossing. If we overlap the cost surface analysis data with the hypothetical fluvial courses fig. Massarosa, Pietrasanta e then Luni is indicated in the consular brevia of and with the , of a podium Pisanum, in Sanguineto near name of podium Vallis Serchii.

According to the Arena, in , of a bridge over the Serchio River majority of experts, this road coincided with in Rosaiolo, located in the area of the church via Aemilia Scauri, the path running at the foot of of San Michele of Vecchializia, subsequently the hills between Pisa and Luni; the term podium Pontasserchio, in , and of a via pubblica de would confirm this idea. Medieval documentation podio in Ramo Vecchiano in Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling case, the route continues north towards Vecchiano in a linear direction, passing close to Arena, the ancient Carraia; in the second case, instead, it bends northwest, roughly following the route of the current SP9 provincial road of San Jacopo, and continues towards Pontasserchio where it crosses the river running more to the south than today.

In the light of archaeological data, the first section of the route appears to be extremely interesting. It is also probable that the initial section of the medieval route was different: a path leading north and leaving the Leone gate probably replaced it or ran alongside it. The use of cost surface analysis overlapped on assumed fluvial courses seems to confirm the hypothesis of two different routes fig. The first in grey , which crosses the river in Carraia, could relate to the Roman Age, subsequently deviated in brown following the transformation of the landscape between the Late Roman period and the Early Middle Ages.

Spatial analysis was 2. The early-medieval river courses are shown in dark blue, the late-medieval courses in blue. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling identify this strata with the strata Vallis Auseris, concluding that the term Musilei derives from the ruins of the Caldaccoli aqueduct. Although it may seem difficult to attribute this road toponym to a road at the foot of the hills at Asciano, this is less so for the existence of the road itself which is highly probable.

After reaching San Giuliano, the path continued towards Lucca passing through Rigoli where it is mentioned in , through Lupino, near Quosa, in and in the area of Pappiana already in Spatial analysis was carried out by dividing the path into two parts: a first stretch between the Parlascio gate and San Giuliano Terme, and a second section between the latter location and Rigoli The route suggested by GIS processing fig. The presence of a bridge at Bottano must refer to a bridge over the Maltraverso trench; attestation of the bridge dates back to the start of the XIV century, when the trench already existed.

Furthermore, the toponym Bottano is indicated in the Leopoldino Fig. Maggiola, in correspondence of the Maltraverso trench, today Morto River It shows a similar route that, how- ever, does not cross San Giuliano. The probable early-medieval river courses are shown in dark blue, the late-medieval courses in blue. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling that the road networks changed, moving towards northwest of the medieval road in brown , compared to the Roman one in grey.

A bridge rose at Stagno along its route and one over the Ugione river. Written sources report continuous paving, gravelling and banking works ordered by the Comune and necessary for the maintenance of this fundamental road axis, especially in the stretch between Portus Pisanus and San Piero a Grado, which was also protected by a number soldiers varying from 4 to 8 DEL CHIARO The road network proposed by GIS analysis fig. If road, the former Strada Regia Livornese, moving we compare the cost surface analysis data with the away from it in two sections and running more to processing carried out on the Auser courses during the west fig.

It is mentioned once again in the Brevia of and The pro- bable early-medieval river courses are shown in dark blue, the late medieval courses in blue. The route analysed in Fasciano; the strada is attested in , through cost surface analysis lies between Pisa in Planicio Riglione , the via publica strada is and the church of San Prospero fig.

The river and the road are mentioned in LEMUT , touching Putignano, then the same areas, so we can imagine that these two moving upwards towards Fasciano, probably communication routes ran parallel to connect the in the current area between Le Bocchette and inland with the sea fig. From this point onwards, the route runs 2. This management of goods between the hinterland non-linear route appears to be determined by and the sea.

This is how Pisa, despite not being the Arno: the accumulation of fluvial deposits a sea city, became a maritime commercial power guarantees the necessary stability and raising of during the Middle Ages. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling status? There does not appear to have been a plan, alii a , that there was a landing place, if not rather a series of responses to environmental and a real urban port, close to piazza del Duomo. Although the toponym an extremely stable and efficient system. What is attested in written sources from the IX century, was kept of this Late Roman port system?

During it can be traced back to the presence of a landing the Late Roman period fig. Archaeological research has shown that in the V century A. Written sources courses of the Tubra and the Auserclus rivers, show an interruption between the start of the VII today lying at 3. A special case , , the absence of material coming from is the archaeological area of San Rossore maritime commercial traffic during the same archaeological data do not indicate the presence of period may be noted. An integrated connection system and Arena, and of Fiumicello, at Orzignano , rose behind Portus Pisanus, composed of minor unlike other areas of the Tuscan coast, allowed landing places on rivers, canals, and lagoonal- Pisa to maintain its navigation techniques and marshy areas and of cartroads Although it establish itself as a naval power between the X is not easy to have complete details, the general and XII century.

The Serchio and Auser rivers were became a secondary port, only small draught boats navigable at least up to the XIII century , as also passed there, making the traffic flow in the area the Arno through which it was possible to reach of Portus Pisanus, which, due to the development Florence As regards the Serchio River, a portus of marshes, was moved towards west.

Here, de Silvanis was situated in Pappiana, at the end of during the XII century, the new port was built the XIII century, a portus navis in Carraia in , for the most part artificial in the area where the and a Ursi or Offi port, between Metato and Arena, industrial site of Livorno currently rises fig. Only from the XVI century onwards, after the stalemate of the XV century, Medicean interventions turned Livorno into the new inter- national port.

Starting from the , at the Monastery of San Savino where a pier XIV and XV centuries, the export of Pisa majolica rose, destroyed at the start of the XII century by continued as also the arrival of Mediterranean a river flood, in Navacchio, which probably took pottery, especially of Catalan and in rare cases its name from a landing place, and in Riglione, far-Eastern origin, whereas the hundreds of where a port is mentioned from The data, albeit preliminary, subsidiary goods such as pottery were shipped of the palaeo-vegetation analyses on the MAPPA and widely distributed among the medium and cores and spatial analysis will be used.

From a vegetation viewpoint, instead, an Sea, starting from the XIII century BERTI , increase in shrub and tree vegetation taxa may be a; GIORGIO , underlines the significant seen with a consequent decrease in herbaceous taxa amount of outgoing goods and the seaports that starting from the Late Roman period and a trend were reached. Monetary finds, starting from the reversal during the Middle Ages. Starting from the mid-XII century, provide details on regional, Late Roman Ages, silver firs Abies alba and pine national and Mediterranean traffic: Pisa coins trees Pinus also increased compared to the Roman have been found in the area of Pistoia, in Valdarno Ages, which is probably related to the natural as far as western Umbria, along the Tuscan coast reafforestoration due to lower anthropic pressure.

The number of vines Vitis and olive and a less marked decrease in pine trees, connected trees Olea also fell starting from the Late Roman to the fact that they started to be cut down again period, and re-appeared during the Middle Ages. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling practices in the area, attested by the presence of How large could the areas devoted to cultivation oats.

The medieval increase in Chenopodiaceae especially cereals be to sustain the population could be associated with both the presence of of Pisa? And how many inhabitants needed to vegetables beets and forage, and may be related, be fed? To answer these questions, I borrowed therefore, to breeding areas which were located and simplified the method used by CITTER , at the margins of the northern and southern which I explicitly refer to in order to obtain areas of the city , where uncultivated publicly comparable data.

The presence of marshy the same time effectively control the territory, vegetation such as Cyperaceae which sedges belong bearing in mind that beyond a certain distance to, could be related to the palea used by barattolai not so much in spatial but in temporal terms , jar makers for their pottery furnaces, collected it was not convenient to directly cultivate, but in lands located in the two areas called Tumulo rather to interweave commercial relations.

If we broaden the radius of Pisa as characterised by wetlands with both to 10 km, we find 18 castles, 3 of which directly arboreal vegetation, composed of elms, alders, controlled by the Comune of Pisa and a monastery, hornbeams and ashes, and herbaceous vegetation, all located to the east of the city near the Monti composed of cespitose plants reeds, hottonia, and Pisani and the strait of Ripafratta; in the further 5 sedges , graminaceous plants and beds of reeds, km radius, the number doubles 20 further castles , and by drier areas where Mediterranean maquis but what is most evident is that the plain of Pisa, grew, but also included arable land, pastures and as far as the Serchio to the north and the foot of the Monti Pisani and hills of Livorno to the east woods.

Considering, therefore, average final stretch of the Arno valley, i. The development inhabitants could theoretically be fed; to this towards south represented, therefore, a need amount, an unspecified supply of products by which increased during the Early Middle Ages sea must be added, which in my opinion could due to the marshy area that surrounded the city not have sustained more than a quarter of the to the north, as demonstrated by CITTER This amount is quite similar cultivated to the south of Pisa possibly reached to that proposed for the start of the XIII century a distance of Since a land use map as the inhabitants.

The environmental context greatly Lands situated between the Serchio considering influenced the development and the choices made its late-medieval course and Lake Massaciuccoli, by the city, without taking a prevailing or definite whose production was probably connected to the role. Some environmental aspects certainly dwellings and castles to the north of the Serchio played a negative role, especially between the River, were not taken into consideration.

Work was Late Roman period and the Early Middle Ages conducted on two areas: the first within a 10 km fig. Pisa in the Middle Ages: archaeology, spatial analysis and predictive modeling leading to the formation of wetlands.